Holigarna arnottiana J.Hk. - ANACARDIACEAE

Synonym : Holigarna longifolia Wt. & Arn.

Vernacular names : Tamil: Karuncheru, Karunkarai, Karuncharai, Kattu cheru  Malayalam: Cattusjeru, Cera, Charii, Charu, Cheru, Kattucher, Kattuchera, Naicheru  Kannada: Holigar, Holigeru, Hulgeri, Kadugeru, Katugeri  English: The black varnish tree

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Botanical descriptions Ecology Distribution Literatures

Botanical descriptions :

Habit : Large trees, up to 35 m tall.
Trunk & Bark : Bark finely fissured and pustular.
Branches and Branchlets : Branches with architecture of “Aubreville_model”; branchlets stout, terete, glabrous.
Exudates : Latex white turns to black.
Leaves : Leaves simple, alternate, spiral, clustered at twig ends; petiole 0.8-2.5 cm long with a pair of spurs (nearly glabrous and sometimes caducous), planoconvex in cross section; lamina 10-25 x 2.5-7.6 cm, oblanceolate, apex obtuse to slightly acuminate, base cuneate to decurrent, margin entire, coriaceous, glabrous; midrib raised above; secondary_nerves 10-20 pairs, tertiary_nerves reticulate.
Inflorescence / Flower : Inflorescence axillary or terminal panicles, 12-24 cm long, golden yellow pubescent; flowers polygamous, greenish white.
Fruit and Seed : Drupe, obliquely ovoid, glabrous, rounded at apex, 3 cm long, wholly enclosed in obconic hypocarp, 1-seeded.

Ecology :

Canopy trees in wet evergreen to semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests, up to 1200 m.

Distribution :

Endemic to Western_Ghats from Central and South Sahyadris.

Literatures :

Hooker, Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 36. 1876; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 268. 1997 (re. ed); Saldanha, Fl. Karnataka 2: 204-205. 1996; Cook, Fl. Bombay 1: 279. 1902; Sasidharan, Biodiversity documentation for Kerala- Flowering Plants, part 6: 111. 2004.

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