Bischofia javanica Blume - EUPHORBIACEAE

Synonym : Bischofia trifoliata Hook.f.

Common name : Toog tree

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Botanical descriptions Habitat and ecology Distribution

Botanical descriptions :

Diagnostic characters : Bark with red sap, leaves trifoliolate, alternate and spiral. Base of rachis swollen. Flowers unisexual. Fruit a fleshy berry.
Habit : Evergreen or deciduous tree up to 35 m tall.
Trunk & bark : Bole straight, bark reddish-brown, smooth to scaly.
Branches and branchlets or twigs : Twigs terete, glabrous.
Exudates : Exudate red.
Leaves : Leaves trifoliolate, alternate and spiral, base of rachis swollen. Leaflets glabrous, oval-elliptic or ovate, apex acuminate, base acute, margin dentate.
Primary veins single, secondary veins obtuse, tertiary veins reticulate.
Stipules present, caducous.
Inflorescences or flowers : Flowers arranged in an inflorescence, axillary, sometimes just behind the leaves, unisexual, on different trees, pedicels 2--3 mm long.
Fruits : Fruit fleshy berry, 0.5 - 1 cm, not splitting.
Seeds : Seeds 4 - 8, covered by a sour, edible aril.

Habitat and ecology :

Common, usually near streams, on riverbanks.

Distribution :

Burma (Myanmar), China (South), India, Indochina, Malesia to Australia, Thailand, Laos (Khammouan).

Remark/notes/uses :
The hard timber is used for construction, the bark is used as a red dye, particularly to stain rattan baskets.

Specimens studied :
BT 825 (Herbarium of Faculty of Sciences-NUoL, NHN-Leiden and CIRAD-Montpellier).

Literature :
Gardner S., Sidisunthorn P. & Anusarnsunthorn V. 2000. A field guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. Kobfai Publishing Project. Bangkok. Thailand.

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