Macaranga trichocarpa (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg. - EUPHORBIACEAE

Basionym : Mappa trichocarpa Zoll.

Synonym : Macaranga minutiflora Müll.Arg.
Macaranga borneensis Müll.-Arg.
Macaranga zollingeri Miq.
Macaranga trichocarpa Rchb.f. & Zoll.var. trilobulata Gagnep.

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Botanical descriptions Habitat and ecology Distribution

Botanical descriptions :

Diagnostic characters : Polymorphic leaves, rhomboid when mature, margin glandular dentate with two nectarines at leaf base and presence of glands on leaf underneath. Fruit spiny and bilobed.
Habit : Small evergreen tree, 10 – 15 m high. Branches ascending to main trunk.
Trunk & bark : Bark smooth, light brown, outer bark thin, inner bark red. .
Branches and branchlets or twigs : Branches slender, terete, finely velvety, silver to yellowish-brown, pubescent.
Exudates : Black sap. .
Leaves : Leaves simple, alternate, 7-15 by 5.5-10 cm, ovate when young then rhombic-elliptic when mature, apex with long tip, rounded at base, margin glandular dentate, glaucous below with fawn short stellate hairs and granular glandular, glabrescent on upper side, occasionally with two inconspicuous nectaries at blade insertion.
Midrib flat on upper surface, three basal primary veins, secondary veins oblique to the midrib, widely parallel, tertiary veins oblique. Petiole slender, 4-5 cm long, finely pubescent.
Stipules pubescent, erect, soon falling off.
Inflorescences or flowers : Flowers unisexual on different trees, axillary, pale yellowish, grouped in racemes, with bract and bracteole; bract deeply dissected and leaf-like. Pedicels 5 mm long.
Fruits : Fruit is a capsule, bilobed, 1.2 by 0.4 cm, with short spines bearing irritant hairs, calyx persistent.
Seeds : Seeds 2-3 per fruit, globose, rugose, black.

Habitat and ecology :

Widespread species in secondary forest among early succession. .

Distribution :

In lower Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, India, Indonesia (Sumatra -Type-, Borneo), Malay Peninsula, Thailand (Central, South-Western and South-Eastern), Vietnam (North-East, Central, South) and Laos (Khammouan province).

Remark/notes/uses :
No reported uses.

Specimens studied :
BT 704 (Herbarium of Faculty of Sciences-NUoL, NHN-Leiden and CIRAD-Montpellier).

Literature :
Tree Flora of Malaya. 1983. A manual for Foresters, Vol. 2. Forest Department, West Malaysia. Multiprint Services.
Flore Générale de l’Indochine. 1925. Vol. 5, Fasc. 4. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Phanérogamie, Paris, France.
Kessler P.J.A. (ed.) 2000. Secondary forest trees of Kalimantan, Indonesia. MOFEC Tropenbos Kalimantan Series 3. The Netherlands.
Peter C. Van Welzen & Kongkanda Chayamarit. 2007. Flora of Thailand, Vol. 8, part 2.The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand.

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