Lithocarpus harmandii (Hickel & A.Camus) A.Camus - FAGACEAE

Basionym : Pasinia harmandii Hickel & A.Camus

Common name : Oak

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Botanical descriptions Habitat and ecology Distribution

Botanical descriptions :

Diagnostic characters : Bark slightly fissured, bark fibres penetrating into the wood. Flowers unisexual on the same plant, male in spike-like catkins, female, sessile, densely clustered on lateral spikes. Acorn sunked in cupule covering ½ of the acorn at maturity, nut smooth.
Habit : Evergreen tree up to 20 m tall, with 50 cm in diameter. Branches ascending to main trunk.
Trunk & bark : Trunk straight. Bark smooth, finely fissured, white or whitish grey, outer bark thin, inner bark red, fibrous.
Branches and branchlets or twigs : Twigs terete, densely lenticelled, glabrous in mature, puberulent yellowish when young.
Exudates : Exudate absent.
Leaves : Leaves simple alternate and spiral, 10-17 by 5.5-9 cm, coriaceous, oblong or elliptic-ovate to obovate, apex obtuse, base acute or attenuate, margin entire. Blade glabrous on both sides.
Midrib flat above, primary vein single, secondary veins oblique to the midrib, widely parallel, tertiary veins undistinctly oblique. Petiole long, shortly hairy when young, blackening when mature.
Inflorescences or flowers : Flowers unisexual on the same plant, male flowers in spike-like catkins, female sessile on lateral spikes.
Fruits : Fruits acorn, united by 3 to 5 at 3/4 of the cupule, the later enveloping almost the whole acorn when young but only the half when mature, 3.2-3.4 by 3.0-3.2 cm sized. Acorn subovoid or obovoid, sometimes slightly trigonal, smooth.
Seeds : Seed 1.

Habitat and ecology :

In dry evergreen forest, in mixed deciduous forest, and in degraded forest along road, from 500 to 1,300 m altitude. Flowering from January to May, fruiting from June to August. .

Distribution :

Cambodia (Type), Malaysia, Thailand (northern, northeastern, eastern, southeastern), Vietnam and Laos (Attapeu and Khammouane provinces).

Remark/notes/uses :
Wood used for timber.

Specimens studied :
BT 17, BT 308 (Herbarium of Faculty of Sciences-NUoL, NHN-Leiden and CIRAD-Montpellier).

Literature :
Flore Générale de l’Indochine . 1929. Vol. 5, Fasc. 8-10.
Chamlong Phengklai et al. 1984. Fagaceae of Thailand. BRT, The Thai Response to Biodiversity.
Chamlong Phengklai, Thai Forest Bulletin, no 34. 2006. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand.

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