Nageia wallichiana (C.Presl.) Kuntze - PODOCARPACEAE

Basionym : Podocarpus wallichianus C. Presl

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Botanical descriptions Habitat and ecology Distribution

Botanical descriptions :

Diagnostic characters : Evergreen trees, branches horizontal. Exudate resinous, reddish-orange. Phyllodes-leaf-like (whithout primary vein) simple, opposite, glabrous. Fruits cone-like male and female on separate trees, axillary, female solitary, male in groups of 3-5.
Habit : An upright evergreen tree, reaching up to 10 (30) m. tall, about 25 cm. in DBH. Upright with a conical crown.
Trunk & bark : Trunk straight, cylindrical, bark dark brown or grey brown. Smooth to scaly flaky bark, peeling in large irregular flakes; inner bark whitish red or brown with brownish resin, sapwood white.
Branches and branchlets or twigs : Branches spreading horizontal, whorled and buds roundish.
Exudates : Reddish-orange resin and scented.
Leaves : Leaf-like organs simple, opposite or subopposite, decussate, ovate to elliptic, dark green above, and light green below, up to 10-15 cm. long and 3-5 cm. wide, apex acuminate, base acute to attenuate, margin entire, stomatal line on both sides.
Fruits : Cone-like, male and fermale on separate trees, female solitary, axillary, male in axillary clusters of 3-5.
Seeds : Seed globose, about 2 cm. in diameter, with beak, black when ripe and surrounded by a purple-red aril-like structure (epimatium).

Habitat and ecology :

Found in closed evergreen forest from 500 to 700 m altitude. In Vietnam it may occur as high as 2100 m.

Distribution :

Burma (Myanmar), China (South), India (Assam), Malay peninsula, Malesia through to New Guinea, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos.

Remark/notes/uses :
The highly valued wood is used for musical instruments, chop sticks, fine crafts and household tools.
Resin harvesting, construction, furniture, firewood. Some area cultivated for ornamental tree.
There are two species of Nageia in Laos: N. wallichiana and N fleuryi.
The main differences are that N. wallichiana has stomata on both sides of the leaf and has a swollen receptacle beneath the seed.
N. fleuryi only has stomata on the underside of the leaf and does not have a swollen receptacle - otherwise they look similar.

Specimens studied :
BT 574 and BT 904 (Herbarium of Faculty of Sciences-NUoL, NHN-Leiden and CIRAD-Montpellier).

Literature :
Nguyen Tien Hiep, Pan Ke Loc, Nguyen Duc To Luu, P.I. Thomas, A. Farjon, L. Averyanov & J. Regalado Jr. 2004. Vietnam Conifers: Conservation Status Review 2004. Fauna & Flora International, Vietnam Programme, Hanoi.

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