Triadica cochinchinensis Lour. - EUPHORBIACEAE

Synonym : Stillingia discolor Champ. ex Benth.
Sapium discolor (Champ.ex Benth.) Müll.Arg.
Excoecaria discolor (Champ.ex Benth.) Müll.Arg .
Excoecaria loureiroana Müll.Arg.
Sapium cochinchinense (Lour.) Pax.& K.Hoffm
Shirakia cochinchinensis ( Lour.) Hurus

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Botanical descriptions Habitat and ecology Distribution

Botanical descriptions :

Diagnostic characters : Presence of tiny vertical pustules on the bark. Leaves thickened on margin, withering red, with long and reddish petiole. Presence of two red kidney shaped glands at its junction with the lamina.
Habit : Small deciduous tree up to 25 m tall. Branches ascending to main trunk.
Trunk & bark : Trunk straight. Bark smooth grey-black with tiny vertical pustules, lenticellate, underbark green, innerbark cream.
Branches and branchlets or twigs : Branches terete, glabrous, dark red when young.
Exudates : White sap.
Leaves : Leaves simple, alternate and spiral, 4-11 by 2.5-4 cm, ovate to elliptic, apex acuminate, base attenuate, margin entire and thickened, pinkish when young, withering red, glaucous below and glabrous on both sides.
Midrib flat above, primary vein single, secondary veins 8-12, oblique to the midrib, widely parallel, tertiary veins finely reticulate. Petiole long, reddish-brown, with two glands at the junction with lamina.
Stipule present.
Inflorescences or flowers : Flowers unisexual on the same plant, yellow, grouped in clusters of spikes terminal, at the end of the branches. Male flowers at the base, female flowers above.
Fruits : Fruit is a capsule, 0.7- 0.9 cm, rounded, dark brown when ripe. .
Seeds : Seeds 3, blue-green.

Habitat and ecology :

In primary and disturbed forest, up to 1000 m altitude. Flowering and fruiting through the whole year.

Distribution :

Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, China (Eastern), India, Indonesia (Sumatra, Northern Borneo, Celebes), Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand (Northern, Northeastern, Eastern and Peninsular, Taiwan, Vietnam and Laos (Khammouan province).

Remark/notes/uses :
The wood is soft and of little value.

Specimens studied :
BT 507 (Herbarium of Faculty of Sciences-NUoL, NHN-Leiden and CIRAD-Montpellier).

Literature :
Gardner S., Sidisunthorn P. & Anusarnsunthorn V. 2000. A field guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. Kobfai Publishing Project. Bangkok. Thailand.
Lehmann L., M. Greijmans and D. Shenman. 2003. Forests and trees of the central highlands of Xieng Khouang Lao PDR, A field guide. Lao Tree Seed Project, Vientiane, Laos.
Peter C. Van Welzen & Kongkanda Chayamarit. 2007. Flora of Thailand, Vol. 8, part 2.The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand.

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